For the historically minded, here’s a brief summary of important events in German history that happened on November 9:
- 1848: Liberal leader Robert Blum is executed, his death functions as a symbolic end to the so-called 1848 revolutions in the German states.
- 1918: After Kaiser Wilhelm’s II (forced) resignation, the first German Republic is announced twice within less than three hours: First, Philipp Scheidemann proclaims a German republic from a window of the Reichstag. Shortly thereafter, Karl Liebknecht announces a “Free Socialist Republic” from the balcony of the Berliner Stadtschloss.
- 1923: During the so-called Beer-Hall Putsch the National Socialist Party emerges for the first time as an important agent in Germany’s politics.
- 1938: During the infamous Kristallnacht, National Socialists burn down Jewish synagogues and businesses, kill many Jewish Germans, and send approximately 26,000 Jews to concentration camps.
- 1989: Fall of the Berlin Wall marks the end of the GDR.