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November 9 in German History

For the historically minded, here’s a brief summary of important events in German history that happened on November 9:

  • 1848: Liberal leader Robert Blum is executed, his death functions as a symbolic end to the so-called 1848 revolutions in the German states.
  • 1918: After Kaiser Wilhelm’s II (forced) resignation, the first German Republic is announced twice within less than three hours: First, Philipp Scheidemann proclaims a German republic from a window of the Reichstag. Shortly thereafter, Karl Liebknecht announces a “Free Socialist Republic” from the balcony of the Berliner Stadtschloss.
  • 1923: During the so-called Beer-Hall Putsch the National Socialist Party emerges for the first time as an important agent in Germany’s politics.
  • 1938: During the infamous Kristallnacht, National Socialists burn down Jewish synagogues and businesses, kill many Jewish Germans, and send approximately 26,000 Jews to concentration camps.
  • 1989: Fall of the Berlin Wall marks the end of the GDR.

About GG

Gundolf Graml is Associate Prof. and Dir. of German Studies at Agnes Scott College. He has a Ph.D. in German Studies from the University of Minnesota and has published articles on German and Austrian film and tourism. He is currently writing a book about tourism and Austrian national identity after 1945. Other research projects include critical whiteness studies and, most recently, investigations into the connection between memory and nature. At ASC, Gundolf Graml teaches courses on a broad range of topics, from German 101 to German and Austrian Cinema and Afro-German History and Culture.


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